Athens is engaged in a struggle against the Macedonians throughout the reign of Philip II. The defeat, however, of the coalition of the southern Greeks in the battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) signals the end of the city's independence in terms of foreign policy. Following the raising of Thebes (336 BC) and the eastern conquests of Alexander, Athens is forced to remain loyal to Macedon. In 322 BC the city rebels, is defeated and looses its independence. Hereafter, and throughout the 3rd cent. BC, Athens remains tributary to the Macedonians. During this period, a prominent figure in the affairs of the city is Demetrios I (Poliorketes, the ‘Besieger’). He constructs the Hellenistic Gate, and adds himself and his father to the original 10 Eponymous Heroes of the city.
Athens regains its freedom around 220 BC, when Diogenes, the commander of the Macedonian garrison, accepts a bribe in order to abandon his post. In the late 3rd cent. BC, Athens enters in an alliance with Rome against Macedon. Independent henceforth, around the mid-2nd cent. BC the city experiences a veritable cultural and architectural renaissance, instrumental to which are the Hellenistic kingdoms of Egypt, Syria, Pergamus, Cappadocia and Pontus. This is the period when the Agora acquires its final rectangular shape with the creation of extended colonnades along its perimeter. An uninterrupted colonnade courses along the façade of the west side monuments, while the south side is adorned with a series of magnificent buildings, the Middle Stoa (180 BC), the South Stoa ΙΙ (150 BC) and the East Building (150 BC). Pre-existing buildings in the west side are demolished and the Stoa of Attalos is erected in their place.
During the same period the Metroon is rebuilt, replacing the now humble-looking Old Bouleuterion. Peristyles, enclosures and a host of votive statues complete the decoration of the square. The town-planning models of the large Asian metropolises (Pergamus), but also those of smaller, but extremely successful new royal possessions (Priene, Assos) are implemented in the Athenian Agora.
The raid of the Roman general Sulla deals a heavy blow to Hellenistic Athens; Sulla besieged and captured the city in 86 BC. The major part of the south side of the Agora was completely destroyed. Henceforth the area is occupied mostly by artisan workshops (pottery, metalworking, marble carving a.o.). Other buildings were also severely damaged, but were subsequently repaired.

The project "Virtual Reality Digital Collection 'The Ancient Agora of Athens'" has been co-funded in a percentage of 80% by the European Regional Development Fund and in a percentage of 20% by state funds in the framework of the Operational Programme "Information Society" of the 3rd Community Support Framework.

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