4500-4000 BC: Neolithic Period. First indications of human habitation in Athens, on the rocky projection of Acropolis. 

3000: The first evidence of human presence in the Agora, based on pottery finds in wells from the Late Neolithic period. 

3000-2000: Early Bronze Age. Apart from scattered pottery shards, there are no traces of human presence in the Agora. 

2000-1600: Middle Bronze Age. The civic space of Athens during the Bronze Age expands into what was later to be the area of the Agora. 

1600-1100: Late Bronze Age. An extensive Mycenaean cemetery exists in the Agora area. 

1100-900: Submycenean –Protogeometric Period. During the ‘Dark Ages’, the Agora continues to be used as burial grounds. 

900-700: Geometric Period. The population of the Agora increases, as testified by the great number of burials and wells. 

700-480: Archaic Period 

700-600: Significant decline in the number of internments in the Agora, attributed to the decrease of the city’s population due to drought.
632: Abortive attempt of Cylon to establish a tyranny.
621: Dracon drafts his laws.
594/593: Solon drafts his laws.
566: The archon Hippocleides reforms the Great Panathenaea festivities. The athletic games are held in the Agora.
562/561: Peisistratos becomes tyrant of Athens.
534/533: Thespis presents his first theatrical plays.
527: Death of Peisistratos.
527-514: Tyranny of Peisistratos' sons, Hippias and Hipparchos. The Southeast Fountain and the original Altar of the Twelve Gods are built during this period.
514: Hipparchos is murdered in front of the Leokoreion by Harmodius and Aristogeiton, while attending the Panathenaea procession.
510: Athens is captured by the Spartans and the tyranny of Hippias comes to an end.
508/507: Cleisthenes promotes a programme of reforms, eventually leading to the transformation of the Athenian polity to a Democracy.
506: The Athenians defeat a coalition of Euboeans, Boetians and Peloponnesians. The Aiakeion is established.
c.500: The Athenian Agora does not yet function as the city's administrative centre. The Old Bouleuterion, Building F and the original Stoa Basileios are erected during this period.
500-499: The wooden platform from which the Athenians watched theatrical performances in the Agora collapse. 

480-323: Classical Period

480-479: Athens is captured by the Persians, who destroy the Acropolis and most of the buildings in the Agora.
479-478: Building of the Themistoclean Walls.
478-477: Establishment of the 1st Athenean League.
c.472-c.460: Cimon’s political ascendancy in Athens. A first comprehensive attempt to shape the Agora area, with the erection of public (Tholos, Stoa Poikile) and religious buildings (Temple of Hephaestus).
451-429: Pericle’s Athens. Important buildings are erected in the Agora, like the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios.
c.450: The musical and rhapsodic contests of the Panathenaea are no longer held in the Agora, being relocated to Pericles’ Odeion.
431-404: Peloponnesian War.
430-429: A pestilence ravages Athens. Death of Pericles.
415: Mutilation of the Hermae and profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The Athenians gather in armed groups in the Agora, fearing a coup.
413: An oligarchic coup dissolves the Democracy.
411: Democracy is restored in Athens. Construction of the New Bouleuterion.
404: Athens is captured by the Spartans. Rule of the Thirty Tyrants.
403: Following struggles, the democrats dissolve the polity of the 30 tyrants.
399: Trial and execution of Socrates.
395-390: Corinthian War.
378/377: Establishment of the 2nd Athenean League.
357-355: War of the Allies.
Mid-4th cent.: Erection of the Temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria.
338: Following their defeat in the battle of Chaeroneia, the Athenians admit Phillip and Alexander in their city.
336-324: Ascendancy of the orator Lycurgus in Athens. The city is adorned with new buildings, especially in the area of the Agora (Temple of Apollo Patroos, Square Peristyle a.o.). The athletic contests of the Panathenaic Games are relocated from the area of the Agora to the Stadion. 

323-30 BC: Hellenistic Period

323/322: Lamian War. The Macedonians capture Athens and dissolve the democratic polity.
317-307: Cassander, king of Macedon, installs Demetrios Phalireus as a governor of Athens.
307: Demetrios the Besieger captures the city and makes a triumphant entrance. Erection of the monumental gate with Demetrios’ monument.
301-300: Zeno of Citium establishes the Stoic philosophical school in the Stoa Poikile.
300-299: Tyranny of Laharis.
267-262: Chremonidian War.
262-229: Athens under Macedonian control.
197: Athens fights on the side of the Romans against Macedon.
c.180: Pharnakes of Pontus donates the Middle Stoa.
c.150: Construction of the Stoa of Attalos, the South Stoa and the East Building.
146: Athens is an independent city-state and ally of Rome.
86: During the 1st Mithridatic War, the Roman general Sulla besieges and captures Athens causing extensive damages to the Agora buildings.
58: Athens becomes tributary to Rome.
42: Athens forms Marcus Antonius’ bastion in Greece. 

30 BC-330 AD: Roman Period

30 BC-14 AD: Augustan Period. Extensive building projects are carried out in the Agora: the Temple of Ares is relocated, the Tholos is rebuilt.
50: The Apostle Paul visits Athens.
124-132: Travels of Emperor Hadrian to Athens.
131: The Panhellenion is established.
Mid-2nd cent.: Thanks to the benefactions of Herodes Atticus and other affluent Athenians, the Agora is adorned with a series of noteworthy buildings (erection of the Auditorium, Library of Pantainos, Southeast Stoa).
150-175: The traveller Pausanias visits Athens and provides an account of the Agora buildings.
253-262: Construction of Valerian’s Wall.
267: The Heruli invade Athens and despoil most of the buildings in the Agora, save those of the west side.
Between 267 and 282: A new defensive wall is built, traversing the Agora.

330-610: Early Byzantine Period

395: Alaric invades Athens. It is thought likely that during this period extensive damages are caused to the buildings of the west side, which were not ruined during the raid of the Heruli.
Late 4th-Early 5th cent.: A phase of intense building activity in the Agora area, with the construction of luxurious residences. The temples are converted to churches. Construction of the Gymnasium.
529: Closure of the Athenian schools of philosophy.
582-583: Slav incursion in Southern Greece. Damages are caused in the Athenian Agora. 

610-1204: Middle Byzantine Period

9th century: Byzantine settlement in the area of the Agora.
1147: Normans invade Athens.
2nd half of the 12th cent.: Arab raid. The city is captured. 

1204-1456: Period of Frankish Rule

1204: Athens is captured by the Franks.
1204-1311: Duchy of Athens.
1311-1388: Athens is ruled by the Catalan Company.
1388-1446: Athens falls to the Venetians and the Acciaiuoli family.
1434, 1446: Visit of Cyriac of Ancona (Ciriaco de' Pizzecolli). 

1456-1821: Ottoman Period

1830: Establishment of the Greek State.

1859-1862: Works are carried out for the construction of a metropolitan railway. The Athenian Archaeological Society conducts investigations in the Agora area: discovery of the Stoa of Attalos. 

1895-1896: Headed by W. Dörpfeld, the German Archaeological Institute at Athens conducts investigations in the Athenian Agora leading to the discovery of the Temple of Apollo Patroos. 

1907: The Athenian Archaeological Society conducts small scale excavations in the area of the Agora. 

1931: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens begins its excavational project in the Athenian Agora. These excavations continue to date, in the area of the Stoa Poikile and the Temple of Aphrodite Ourania. 

1940-1945: Because of the war, all excavational activities in the Agora cease, while the finds are stored in special protected spaces. 

1956: Based on the drawings of the architect Ioannes Travlos, the Stoa of Attalos is reconstructed to its original form, to be used as a museum for the findings from the Agora and to house the workshops and secretariat of the excavation. 

1970s and 1980s: The excavations expand into the northern part of the Agora, beyond the archaeological site. The Stoa Poikile is unearthed. 

2004: The Accession Treaty of the 10 new members to the European Union is signed in the Stoa of Attalos.


The project "Virtual Reality Digital Collection 'The Ancient Agora of Athens'" has been co-funded in a percentage of 80% by the European Regional Development Fund and in a percentage of 20% by state funds in the framework of the Operational Programme "Information Society" of the 3rd Community Support Framework.

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