Location: Below the Old Bouleuterion and the Tholos (See Thompson, H.A. – Wycherley, R., The Agora of Athens. The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora, vol. XIV, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton 1972, pp. 26, fig. 8 and 28, fig. 9).
Date of construction: 6th cent. BC.
Periods of Use: Archaic
Buildings C, D and F, which are located beneath the ruins of the Old Bouleuterion, constitute an Archaic complex of an irregular shape; it was thought that it was the first gathering place for Solon’s boule. It is currently believed that the buildings’ function was private. 

In 1936, an intricate complex of Archaic buildings was excavated beneath the ruins of the Old Bouleuterion. Their foundations and the lower layers of the walls were made of rough or roughly hewn blocks of Acropolis limestone, while the superstructure was built with mud bricks. The floor was made of compacted earth. The earliest of these buildings is Building C, at the site of the Old Bouleuterion. Its ground plan is rectangular with sides measuring 6.7 m (N to S) × 15 m (E to W). Internally, it was arranged into two rooms with a southern exposure. The east wall was expanded towards the south, so as to serve as a retaining wall for a large square. A similar construction appears at the extension of the western wall. These walls were made of Acropolis limestone and the masonry is polygonal. Based on the pottery unearthed in its foundations, the building has been dated to the 1st quarter of 6th cent. BC.
Soon after, Building D, an orthogonal structure, was erected on the edge of the extension of the western supporting wall. This building is internally arranged into a spacious central room flanked by two smaller ones – the western one appears to have been a later addition to the original structure. The material and techniques employed in the construction of Building D are similar to those of Building C, although it does give the impression of a more carefully built structure, and it is dated to the 3rd quarter of the 6th cent. BC. It is located opposite Building C, behind the aforementioned spacious courtyard.
The original complex cannot be have been used as an early Bouleuterion of 400 representatives, as the capacity of each building is inadequate for a body of such size. Shortly after its construction, Building D was destroyed. Another building was erected on its site; the enclosure was expanded further, and at its south edge a complex structure was added, known as Building F.
Building F has not been fully excavated, as it is partly overlaid by the ruins of the Tholos. Its shape is that of an exceptionally large and comfortable residence of the Late Archaic period; in reality, it takes up the space created behind the crossroads of two important Agora roads, the West and South Streets. Its general shape is rather irregular, which is also true for each of the rooms. Its dimensions are thought to have been 27 m (E to W) × 18.5 m (N to S). There are two internal courtyards around which the rooms were arranged, a main courtyard to the east and a smaller one to the west.
The building’s walls were made of rough Acropolis limestone blocks and the gaps between them were filled with smaller stones and mortar. The superstructure would certainly have been made of mud bricks, while there are indications for the existence of a second storey that partly rested on wooden columns, of which only their bases remain, still visible on the large courtyard to the east. The thickness of the walls is approximately 0.50m. There were seven columns on the north and seven more on the south part of the courtyard. It is thought the complex of rooms around the smaller courtyard housed the kitchen, while the rooms around the east courtyard served as living spaces for the owners.
A series of smaller structures were built in direct relation to the original complex. Apparently the said buildings were destroyed during the occupation of Athens by Xerxes’ troops in 480 BC. Although there are traces of repairs, it is uncertain whether the complex was still in use when the Tholos was built (c.465-460 BC).
Mc CAMP II, J., The Athenian Agora: A Guide to the Excavation and Museum4 (Athens 1990), pp. ….
Mc CAMP II, J., Η Αρχαία Αγορά της Αθήνας. Οι ανασκαφές στην καρδιά της κλασικής πόλης2 (Athens 2004), pp. 59-60.
THOMPSON, H.A., The Tholos of Athens and its Predecessors,The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora, Hesperia Supplement 4, American School of Classical Studies at Athens (Princeton 1940), pp. 8-33.
THOMPSON, H.A. – WYCHERLEY, R., The Agora of Athens. The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora, vol. XIV, American School of Classical Studies at Athens (Princeton 1972), pp. 25-29.

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